The important information and still in the film
Republic of Venice (Italian: Repubblica di Venezia, Venetian:
Repùblica Vèneta or Repùblica de Venesia) was a state
originating from the city of Venice in Northeastern Italy.
It existed for over a millennium, from the late 7th century
until 1797. It was formally known as the Most Serene Republic
of Venice (Italian: Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia,
Venetian: Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta or Repùblica de
Venesia) and is often referred to as La Serenissima, in
reference to its title as one of the "Most Serene
Republics". Despite its long history of war and conquest,
the Republic's modern reputation is chiefly based on its
status as an economic and trading power. (Here)
Republic of Venice
still（00:03:13）Venice Patriarch Orsini's teams through
city of Venice in mighty formation
Battle of Lepanto took place on 7 October 1571 when
a fleet of the Holy League, a coalition of southern
European Catholic maritime states, decisively defeated
the main fleet of the Ottoman Empire in five hours
of fighting on the northern edge of the Gulf of Corinth,
off western Greece. The Ottoman forces sailing westwards
from their naval station in Lepanto (Turkish; Greek;
Naupaktos or pahtos) met the Holy League forces, which
had come from Messina. The members of the Holy League
were Spain (including the Kingdom of Naples, the Kingdom
of Sicily and the Kingdom of Sardinia as part of the
Spanish possessions), the Republic of Venice, the
Papacy, the Republic of Genoa, the Duchy of Savoy,
the Duchy of Urbino, the Knights Hospitaller and others.
victory of the Holy League prevented the Ottoman
Empire expanding further along the European side
of the Mediterranean. Lepanto was the last major
naval battle in the Mediterranean fought entirely
between galleys and has been assigned great symbolic
victory for the Holy League was historically important
not only because the Turks lost 80 ships sunk and
130 captured by the Allies, and 30,000 men killed
(not including 12,000 Christian galley slaves who
were freed) while allied losses were 7,500 men and
17 galleys—but because the victory heralded the end
of Turkish supremacy in the Mediterranean.
of Lepanto painting
still（00:03:15）People of the Republic of Venice shouted
slogans when the Orsini's teams through
Pontios Pīlātos), was the fifth Prefect of the
Roman province of Judaea, from AD 26–36. He is
best known as the judge at the trial of Jesus
and the man who authorized the crucifixion of
Jesus. As prefect, he served under Emperor Tiberius.
all four gospel accounts, Pilate avoids responsibility
for the death of Jesus. In the Gospel of Matthew,
Pilate washes his hands to show that he was not
responsible for the execution of Jesus and reluctantly
sends him to his death.
block discovered in 1961 with Pilate's tribute in
Latin to Tiberius. The words [TIVS PILATVS] can
be clearly seen on the second line.
before Pilate, Mihály Munkácsy, 1881
The Gospel of Mark, depicting Jesus as innocent
of plotting against the Roman Empire, portrays Pilate
as reluctant to execute Jesus. In the Gospel of
Luke, Pilate not only agrees that Jesus did not
conspire against Rome, but Herod Antipas, the Tetrarch
of Galilee, also finds nothing treasonable in Jesus'
actions. In the Gospel of John, Pilate states “I
find no guilt in him [Jesus]” and he asks the Jews
if Jesus should be released from custody.
have long debated how to interpret Pilate's portrayal
in the sources. The significance of the Pilate
Stone, an artifact discovered in 1961 that names
Pontius Pilate, is debated by a few scholars.
still（00:08:18）Venice University Principal Morosini and
his wife held a party to welcome Bruno to Venice
still（00:47:04）Morosini spoke in the Senate of Republic
of Venice to block extradition the Bruno to Rome. He says:
But who will remove from us the mark of Pontius Pilatus,
if we deliver Bruno to his persecutors?
Republic Senate vote by 112 votes in favor and 10 votes
against, agreed to extradite Bruno to the Roman Inquisition
The Pope Clemente VIII
Why have you come to Venice?
- I want to go back to Rome.
- Why have you returned to Italy?
I want to go back to Rome!
You don't realize the risk you're taking.
After the election of Clemente
VIII, the situation should be different.
How many people have died at the hands of the Holy
Don't say another word! Do you want to ruin me?
(Latin: Clemens PP. VIII, Italian: Clemente VIII), 24 February
1536 – 3 March 1605), born Ippolito Aldobrandini, was the
head of the Catholic Church from 30 January 1592 to his
death in 1605. He was from a Florentine family, and followed
his father as a canon lawyer, becoming an Auditor (judge)
of the Roman Rota, the highest ecclesiastical court constituted
by the Holy。He was only ordained as a priest at the age
of 45, and rose to Pope in a further 12 years.
strict ways also concerned philosophical and religious matters.
In 1599 he ordered the Italian miller Menocchio – who had
formed the belief that God was not eternal but had Himself
once been created out of chaos – to be burned at the stake.
A more famous case was the trial for heresy of Giordano
Bruno, who was burned at the stake in 1600. Pope Clement
VIII participated personally in the final phases of the
trial, inviting the Cardinals in charge of the case to proceed
with the verdict. (Here)
still（01:29:40）From left: Cardinal Bellarmine, Pope Clemente
VIII, Cardinal Sartori. Three personal are disagreement
to the treatment of Bruno case, Pope hesitant
Robert Bellarmine, S.J. (Italian: Roberto Francesco Romolo
Bellarmino; 4 October 1542 – 17 September 1621) was an Italian
Jesuit and a Cardinal of the Catholic Church. He was one
of the most important figures in the Counter-Reformation.
He was canonized in 1930 and named a Doctor of the Church....The
next pope, Clement VIII, set great store by him. He was
made rector of the Roman College in 1592, examiner of bishops
in 1598, and cardinal in 1599. Immediately after his appointment
as Cardinal, Pope Clement made him a Cardinal Inquisitor,
in which capacity he served as one of the judges at the
trial of Giordano Bruno, and concurred in the decision which
condemned Bruno to be burned at the stake as a heretic.
caso Giordano Bruno (Italian)
caso di Giordano Bruno, filosofo e frate domenicano condannato
al rogo per eresia, fu un evento che scaturì dalla dura
reazione controriformista ai tentativi di modificare i
temi della fede religiosa iniziati alcuni decenni prima
con la riforma protestante. Il frate domenicano, condannato
per le sue idee anche dalla chiesa luterana e da quella
calvinista, si era fatto promotore di nuove idee religiose
e filosofiche che si ponevano in netta antitesi con quelle
della Chiesa, di cui tra l'altro faceva parte integrante.
L'istruzione dell'inchiesta e del processo ebbe luogo
nel 1593 e la sentenza fu emessa nel 1600: coinvolse Bellarmino
dal 1597, da quando cioè fu nominato consultore del Santo
Uffizio. Il Bellarmino ebbe alcuni colloqui con il frate
domenicano, durante i quali tentò di fargli abiurare le
molte tesi considerate eretiche, nel probabile tentativo
di salvargli la vita, poiché la condanna per eresia
era inevitabilmente capitale. La lunga durata del processo
fu causata dal fatto che Giordano Bruno non ebbe un comportamento
lineare nell'ammettere l'ereticità delle proprie posizioni.
Benché gli inquisitori volessero ricorrere, come extrema
ratio, alla tortura, Papa Clemente VIII si oppose fermamente.Durante
il processo la Congregazione fece esaminare da Bellarmino
una dichiarazione di Giordano Bruno su otto proposizioni
che gli erano state contestate come eretiche. Il 24 agosto
1599 il cardinale Bellarmino riferì alla Congregazione
che, nello scritto, Giordano Bruno aveva ammesso come
eretiche sei delle otto proposizioni, mentre sulle altre
due la sua posizione non appariva chiara: ??videtur aliquid
dicere, si melius se declararet??. La completa ammissione
gli avrebbe risparmiato la condanna a morte, ma alla fine
Giordano Bruno preferì mantenere le precedenti posizioni
decidendo di affrontare la pena. A condanna ormai avvenuta
all'imputato venne concesso ancora un qualche compromesso
per evitare la morte, ma Giordano Bruno preferì affrontare
il rogo, che ebbe luogo a Roma in Campo de' Fiori il 17
still（01:18:21）Cardinal Bellarmine tried to persuade Bruno
renounce their faith for his life
you called me here to your house, to judge my character?
you've travelled all around Europe only to understand
that,after all, the Catholic religion is the one
you like the most? Even though it needs new rules.
that's what you said. A reform to pull all of
Christianity together. Isn't this what you wanted
to suggest? Isn't it? Your persistent demand for
a direct dialogue with the Pope, is causing only
irritation to your judges. The Church has its
hierarchy, its structure. You
can't defy an order that's lasted for centuries,
without damaging your own cause.
the Church is only an instrument of conservation.
Church lives in history; it is history. These
times demand great strength and resolution. And
even cruelty... but time goes on, and the Church
you persecute all those that ask for a freedom that
you're not willing to give?
That we cannot give.
The Church is torn apart by endless schisms, everywhere.
Germany, England, Scandinavia, Switzerland, and
now even Flanders. The kings challenge us.
kings have learned from the Church. how to use faith
as an instrument of power. So, each state
aims to institute its own religion.
is why we are forced to defend ourselves so severely.
our barrier against all heresies.
yourselves? How? Using Spain, which preserves the
purity of the faith by burning Arabs and Jews by
is the most faithful daughter of Christianity, our
barrier against all heresies.
Spain! Today, the Catholic Church... is ploughing
a deep furrow...that divides Europe.
duty of the Church is to defend the integrity of
its principles and fight heresy in any form. Whoever
defies the power of the
Church, is an enemy...an enemy of the Holy Faith.
let them take me back to my cell.
and Dominican Order（01:25:09--01:26:38）
– May 2, 1576), Spanish priest of the Dominican Order, theologian
and Archbishop of Toledo, sometimes called de Miranda or
de Carranza y Miranda, who spent much of his later life
imprisoned on (eventually disproven) charges of heresy.（Here）
Order of Preachers
Order of Preachers (Latin:
Ordo Praedicatorum, hence the abbreviation OP used by members),
more commonly known after the 15th century as the Dominican
Order or Dominicans, is a Roman Catholic religious order
founded by the Spanish priest Saint Dominic de Guzman in
France, and approved by Pope Honorius III (1216–27) on 22
December 1216. Membership in the Order includes friars,
nuns, active sisters, and lay or secular Dominicans (formerly
known as tertiaries) affiliated with the Order.
to preach the Gospel and to combat heresy, the order is
famed for its intellectual tradition, having produced
many leading theologians and philosophers.
The Dominican Order is headed by the Master of the Order,
who is currently Father Bruno Cadoré. Members of the order
generally carry the letters O.P. standing for Ordinis
Praedicatorum, meaning of the Order of Preachers, after
the year 2000, there were 5,171 Dominican friars in solemn
vows, 917 student brothers, and 237 novices. By the
year 2010 there were 5,906 Dominican friars, including
(stand on the left) and Dominicans member was interrogated
by the Holy Inquisition. Carranza being sued as a "heresy"
, and imprisonment up to 17 years
Inquisition was a group of institutions within the judicial
system of the Roman Catholic Church whose aim was to combat
heresy. It started in 12th-century France to combat the
spread of religious sectarianism, in particular the Cathars
and the Waldensians. This Medieval Inquisition persisted
into the 14th century, from the 1250s associated with
the Dominican Order. In the early 14th century, two other
movements attracted the attention of the Inquisition,
the Knights Templar and the Beguines.At the end of the
Middle Ages, the concept and scope of the Inquisition
was significantly expanded, now in the historical context
of the turmoils of the Protestant Reformation and the
Catholic Counter-Reformation. Its geographic scope was
expanded to other European countries, as well as throughout
the Spanish and Portuguese empires in the Americas, Asia
and Africa. Its focus now came to include the persecution
of sorcery (an aspect almost entirely absent from the
trial of Galileo in 1632 (painting French Jules-Eugène
of Joan of Arc（1412-1431）
making it one of the agents in the Early Modern witch-hunts.The
institution persisted after the end of the witch-trial period
in the 18th century, but was abolished outside of the Papal
States after the Napoleonic wars. The institution survives
as part of the Roman Curia, but it was renamed to Supreme
Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office in 1904.(Here)
17,1600，Bruno martyrdom in the Campo de Fiori
9,1989, a statue of Giordano Bruno was erected
in Rome Campo de 'Fiori square
About Giordano Bruno
(1548–February 17, 1600) (Latin: Iordanus Brunus Nolanus),
born Filippo Bruno, was an Italian Dominican friar, philosopher,
mathematician and astronomer. His cosmological theories
went beyond the Copernican model: he proposed the Sun was
essentially a star, and that the universe contained an infinite
number of inhabited worlds populated by other intelligent
beings. The Roman Inquisition found him guilty of heresy
and he was burned at the stake. After his death he gained
considerable fame, particularly among 19th- and early 20th-century
commentators who, focusing on his astronomical beliefs,
regarded him as a martyr for free thought and modern scientific
assessments suggest that Bruno's ideas about the universe
played a smaller role in his trial than his pantheist
beliefs, which differed from the interpretations and scope
of God held by the Catholic Church.In addition to his
cosmological writings, Bruno also wrote extensively on
the art of memory, a loosely organized group of mnemonic
techniques and principles. The historian Frances Yates
argues that Bruno was deeply influenced by Arab astrology,
Neoplatonism and Renaissance Hermeticism. Other studies
of Bruno have focused on his qualitative approach to mathematics
and his application of the spatial paradigms of geometry
Bruno was a controversial figure of the Italian
Renaissance. Burned at the stake for heresy and pantheism
in 1600, Giordano Bruno is viewed by many as a martyr
for free thought and modern scientific advancement. His
views on infinite worlds, his mnemonic techniques, and
his approach to mathematics all make him an important
figure. He was very outspoken and led a challenging life
full of travel and a rotating list of supporters as well
as enemies. Wherever Giordano Bruno went, his passionate
opinions found opposition.
Filippo Giordano Bruno in 1548 in Nola (in Campania, then
part of the Kingdom of Naples), he was the son of a solider,
Giovanni Giordano Bruno and his wife Fraulissa Savolino.
After studies in Naples and tutoring at the Augustinian
monastery there, at the age of 17 he entered the Dominican
Order of the monastery of San Domenico Maggiore in Naples
(where the infamous Thomas Aquinas had taught). There
he was primarily instructed on Aristotelian philosophy
and changed his name to Giordano, the name of his metaphysics
tutor, and became an ordained priest by the age of twenty-four.
Bruno’s abilities in the art of memory were soon recognized
Pope Pius V who invited him to give a demonstration. It
was also at this time that Giordano Bruno developed his
penchant for free thinking and was caught participating
against religious doctrine by owning a banned Erasmus
book, which he had also notated along with other discrepancies.
Unfortunately for Giordano Bruno, an indictment was being
prepared against him by the Inquisition causing him to
flee Naples in 1576. He traveled for a time in Italy where
he was still able to publish his now lost work, On The
Signs of the Times, 1577. By 1579 he was in Geneva, a
protestant city, but was soon arrested due to a publication
he produced that was critical of another professor at
the University. For the next seven years he lived in France
lecturing on various subjects and attracting the support
of powerful patrons.
still in France Giordano Bruno published his book De Umbris
Idearum (the Shadows of Ideas, 1582), and dedicated it
to the French King, Henry III. The King took an interest
in Giordano Bruno, and specifically in his lectures on
the art of memory. The Italian Friar benefitted much from
his newfound French patronage and continued to publish:
Ars Memoriae (The Art of Memory, 1582), and Cantus Circaeus
(Circe's Song, 1582). Both books from 1582 addressed his
discussions on mnemonic models. During this time he also
wrote Candelaio, an outrageous dramatic comedy centering
on the male midlife crisis and incorporating ‘avant-garde’
mannerisms employing ‘proto-Brechtian’ devices, vulgar
language and jokes..............
England in October 1585, Giordano Bruno returned to Paris
where the political climate was tense for him. Due to
his writings against Aristotelian natural science, and,
in particular, a publication against Fabrizio Mordente,
the mathematician, Giordano Bruno was becoming controversial
and unaccepted. He soon left for Germany and lectured
in Wittenberg for two years. He then went to Prague, and
then Helmstedt, but continued to run into trouble as his
views were becoming increasingly problematic. Though during
this time of travel and upheaval, he was still able to
complete many works in Latin. These works are known as,
De Magia (On Magic), Theses De Magia (Theses On Magic)
and De Vinculis In Genere (A General Account of Bonding).
He also managed to publish De Imaginum, Signorum, Et Idearum
Compositione (On The Composition of Images, Signs and
Ideas, 1591). In this same year, 1591, he returned to
Italy and eventually became a tutor to Giovanni Mocenigo.
Sadly, this tutorship became tragic and traumatic for
Giordano Bruno as his apprentice denounced him and his
teachings to the Venetian Inquisition. The enigmatic friar
recanted while in Venice, yet was still sent to Rome for
was imprisoned in Rome in 1592 and died there eight years
later. Although many, presumably important, documents
are missing from this period, others still exit. The many
charges against Giordano Bruno were based on his writings
as well as on witness testimonies. Some of these charges
included blasphemy, immoral conduct, engaging with magic,
and heresy that could be found in the doctrines of his
philosophy and cosmology. Giordano Bruno was of course
rather controversial as he held many opinions contrary
to the Catholic faith, such as his theory of multiple
worlds and transubstantiation. He was asked to recant
his philosophy but he only attempted a partial recantation
so as to retain the basis, and perhaps integrity, of his
philosophy. Unfortunately, this was not enough for the
Pope who recommended that he be put to death. To be sure,
as there was not an official Catholic Church position
on the Copernican system in 1600, Bruno’s views on Copernicus
were not the ‘sole’ reason he was declared a heretic.
Bruno was greatly influenced by Bernardino Telesio (1509-1588)
who was part of a group of independent philosophers of
the late Renaissance who attempted to develop philosophical
and scientific ideas outside of the constraints of the
Aristotelian-scholastic tradition. Nicholas de Cusa (1401-1464),
an ecclesiastical reformer, administrator and cardinal,
was also a great influence on Bruno. The idea of evolution
appears in Nicholas de Cusa in a somewhat pantheistic
form, but is further developed by Giordano Bruno with
greater clarity both for physics and metaphysics.
Bruno’s unitary concept of nature found admiration by
very important philosophers/scholars such as, Baruch de
Spinoza, Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi and George Wilhelm
Friedrich Hegel. While his overall contribution to the
birth of modern science is still open to debate, many
believe Giordano Bruno to be much more a philosopher than
a scientist. Issac Asimov disregards him as a “philosopher
and poet” rather than a scientist, though he sees scientists
as dreamers. Scholars such as Frances Yates believe his
ideas on an infinite universe without geocentric structure
were a critical shift between the old and new modes of
thought. Bruno’s concept of multiple worlds is also viewed
by some as a forerunner to Everett’s many-worlds interpretation
of quantum mechanics. Some also believe Giordano Bruno
was one of the precursors to Sir Isaac Newton’s theory
of place and absolute space. (More